Wind energy is one of the most popular sources of renewable energy across the globe. Like solar, the wind is also an abandon available source on the planet. But it needs to be noted that solar rays are one of the causes for the wind to flow due to uneven heating of the atmosphere, also due to roughness on the earth and rotation of the earth. Turbines use this flow of air – wind to generate electricity.
Wind power is a process used to convert wind energy into mechanical energy or electricity. The wind turbines convert the kinetic energy of wind energy into mechanical power. This mechanical power then is converted into electricity by generators. This mechanical power is also used sometimes directly for pulverizing grains, pumping water of the dams or lakes or river, but is rare.
Wind power is considered as the cleanest way to generate electricity and also is reliable to a great extent. Though the availability of wind is abandoned the speed of wind plays an important role in power generation. There are three main factors involved in electricity generation from wind, i.e. – the speed of the wind, how often it blows, and when. The power generation from the wind turbine is directly proportional to the speed of the wind. In simple words, if the speed of the wind at a particular place of wind turbine doubles then the electricity generation increases by eight times.
The function of the wind turbines is exactly opposite to the fan in the house. It uses electricity to generate wind whereas the wind turbine uses wind to generate electricity by giving the mechanical power to the generator. Wind turbines are rotating machines which are evolved from windmills, the development of this process has been a major breakthrough in reducing the use of fossil fuels for electricity generation and an attempt to keep the environment clean and green.
There are two types of wind turbines, one with horizontal rotation and other vertical rotation of its blades, used offshore and onshore. When wind turbines are clustered together (at a place where the wind speed and flow are favorable) it is called the wind farm. These wind farms can be seen on the seashore or hilltops or in the rural area where the wind flow is throughout the day and night and during most of the time of the year.
The only disadvantage of the wind power generated electricity is, it cannot generate electricity as per the demand of the electricity, i.e., peak hour demand and slag hour demand. Generated electricity by these wind farms can be saved in batteries and used. Also, not all forms of wind can be used for electricity generation. It also needs proper infrastructure for the distribution of power.